What Happened to the American Christian Pastor?27 min read

by Jillian Diffenderfer
What Happened to the American Christian Pastor?<span class="wtr-time-wrap after-title"><span class="wtr-time-number">27</span> min read</span>
Reading Time: 18 minutes

Present-day Christianity…has lower standards for church membership than those getting on a bus.

~Harry R. Rudin (“Has the Church a Message of Salvation,” 1952)

American Christians and American Pastors weren’t always lackadaisical. In fact, in 1830, Elder Samuel Rogers of the Disciples of Christ remarked, “In those days, we were emphatically a Bible people. The Scriptures were our daily study: we attempted to do nothing, either as a church or as individuals, without divine warrant. As we were assembled together to worship on the Lord’s day, we resembled more a school of children, with textbooks in hand, than a modern congregation of worshippers.” [1]

Recently, Pastor Tony Evans noted, “Kingdom disciples are in short supply these days. The result has been a bevy of powerless Christians who attend powerless churches that embody a powerless presence in the world.” [2]

What has happened to American Christians? It was not so long ago that Alexis de Tocqueville observed, “There is no country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America.”[3]

The early American understanding of spiritual matters and the ability of the church to speak into civil government can be traced directly back to discipleship from the American pastor at his pulpit.

Pastors of the American Revolution

John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (October 1, 1746 – October 1, 1807)

A glance at primary sources shows us the boldness which came from the pulpit prior to and during the Founding era of America. Many are familiar with John Peter Muhlenberg, who preached from Ecclesiastes 3:1: “For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven,” before closing his message saying, “In the language of the Holy Writ, there is a time for all things. There is a time to preach and a time to fight. And now is the time to fight.” He then revealed his military uniform, which, until that point, had been hidden under his pastor’s tunic. The very next day, Pastor Muhlenberg himself led 300 men of his church and surrounding churches to join General Washington’s Continental Army.[4]

Likely, many also have heard of the ministry of George Whitefield. Whitefield made seven continental tours, spanning from Georgia to Maine and back again, between 1739 and 1770. All American churches were influenced by his efforts as he caused them to rethink evangelism. He spoke in church halls, on the streets, and in public marketplaces. He called on people to be born again, changing preaching in America while uniting the colonies through the revival of Christianity prior to the American Revolution.[5]

Many more examples of pastoral exhortation exist from our nation’s founding, verifying that pastors were not silent on what civil and governmental issues plagued the nation at the time.

Many Early American Civil Leaders Were Trained By Their Pastors

Dr. Samuel Langdon calls for repentance and a biblical form of government

Dr. Samuel Langdon, in his 1775 address titled, Government Corrupted by Vice, laid Isaiah 1:26 as the cornerstone of his message: “And I shall restore thy judges as at the first, thy counselors as at the beginning; afterward thou shalt be called the city of righteousness, the faithful city.” Langdon asserts that colonists “have made a noble stand for their natural and constitutional rights, in opposition to the machinations of wicked men” and that the American people must keep their “eyes fixed on the supreme government of the ETERNAL KING.” Through his message, Langdon evaluates the civil polity of Israel as found in the Bible, calling it an “excellent general model” which “may be copied, to great advantage, in more modern establishments.” From the pulpit, Langdon reminds his audience that, “if (in biblical Israel) a general reformation of religion and morals had taken place, had they turned to God from all their sins…they would have soon found out methods to restore the former virtue of the state, and again have given them men of wisdom and integrity…to be counselors and judges.” Langdon beseeches his listeners to look at their own hearts, recognizing they had indeed “rebelled against God.” Finally, Langdon asserts, “We have lost the true spirit of Christianity…. The worship of many is but a mere compliment to the Deity, while their hearts are far from him.”[6]

Jacob Duché (1737–1798), Chaplain of Congress, led the opening prayer that would shape a nation.

Jacob Duché calls on Congress to recognize the spiritual freedom that comes from Christ

Jacob Duché, best known for his opening prayer at the Continental Congress of 1774, preached at Christ Church, Philadelphia, July 7, 1775. He dedicated his sermon, titled The Duty of Standing Fast in Our Liberties, to General Washington. In opening his sermon, Duché urges the congregation to consider “the twofold character of a minister of Jesus Christ, and a fellow citizen of the same state, involved in the same public calamity with yourselves, looking up for counsel and direction to the source of all wisdom, ‘who giveth liberally to those that ask it.’”

Further, Duché enlightens his audience with understanding that there is a bondage more severe than their current circumstances, for which the only release is through the finished work of Jesus Christ on the cross, the salvation free to every man. Once Christ is made Savior, it is the believer’s duty to stand fast in their spiritual freedom. He noted Galatians 5:1 which says, “Stand fast, therefore, in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free.”

Additionally, Duché recognizes that the spiritual freedom in Christ results in a “glorious hereafter” while civil liberty “must be allowed to secure in a considerable degree our wellbeing here” on earth. It was Duché’s belief that “we are bound to stand fast in our civil as well as our spiritual freedom.” He believed that “true government can have no other foundation than common consent” and that “the benevolent spirit of the Gospel is directly opposed to every other form [of government] than such as has the common good of mankind for its end and aim.”

In his own words, Duché encourages his fellow citizens to both spiritually and in the civil realm:
1. “Stand fast by a strong faith and dependence on Jesus Christ, the great Captain of your salvation.”
2. “Stand fast by a virtuous and unshaken unanimity” (agreement).
3. “Stand fast by an undaunted courage and magnanimity” (generosity).
4. “Stand fast by a steady constancy and perseverance.”[7]

Dr. Jonathan Mayhew calls out the wrongdoings inflicted by government

Years prior, Dr. Jonathan Mayhew, ordained pastor of West Church in Boston, gave these words in 1766 as a response to the repeal of the Stamp Act: “Natural right is declared, affirmed and secured to us…by Magna Charta” and “the colonies had great reason to petition and remonstrate against a late act of Parliament, as being an infraction of these rights, tending to reduce us to a state of slavery.” Mayhew asserted that Americans “were free-born, never made slaves,” and that the Lord “hath inspired the people of America with a noble spirit of liberty and remarkably united them in standing up for that invaluable blessing.” In celebration of the repeal of the Stamp Act, Mayhew quoted Psalm 124:7, “Our soul is escaped as a bird from the snare of the fowlers; the snare is broken, and are escaped. Our help is in the name of the Lord, who made heaven and earth.”[8]

Patriot preachers of the American Revolution were not silent on the wrongdoings of civil government. Not only did they educate their congregants on the biblical view of such evils, they encouraged their parishioners to look inward first to get their own hearts right, then take action to right the wrongs inflicted by the government on their kin and country.

The Lie of the Separation of Church and State

Engraved in the Jefferson memorial’s northwest portico are these words: “Almighty God hath created the mind free. All attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burthens…are a departure from the plan of the holy Author of our religion…. No man shall be compelled to frequent or support religious worship or ministry or shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief, but all men shall be free to profess and by argument to maintain their opinions in matters of religion. I know but one code of morality for men whether acting singly or collectively.”[9]

What did Jefferson mean when he said this? Was he advocating the separation of church and state? Nowadays, it seems that when the separation of church and state is referenced, it is alluding to keeping the church out of government. Specifically, this phrase is used to keep any kind of religious message or symbolism out of the public sector, including town squares, public schools, school sports, and more. This could not be further from the truth. In fact, Jefferson’s draft of A Bill For Establishing Religious Freedom was the first attempt in the new nation to remove the government’s influence from religious affairs. Why? Because at the time, the Church of England was the state-sponsored church in Virginia. Taxes supported this church, and laws required Colonial people to attend the Church of England. Jefferson opposed government-mandated religion. In fact, Jefferson worked with James Madison to ensure the freedom of religion would be secure in Virginia though the passing of a bill in which:

1. Citizens would not have to give their money to a religious organization that violated their conscience.
2. Citizens would not be required to attend a place of worship or participate in a religious service that violated their conscience.
3. The bill would not be repealed because if repealed, the natural rights of mankind would be violated.
4. There would be no official state-sponsored sect or denomination.[10]

Sadly, another of Jefferson’s writings continues to be misconstrued and circulated without context to perpetuate the lie of the separation of church and state. In whole, the writing says:

“Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should ‘make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,’ thus building a wall of separation between Church and State.…”[11]

Thomas Jefferson sought to keep the government out of religion, not the other way around.

It is important to note that the phrase “wall of separation of church and state” is not in any legal document.

It is not in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, or any other statute. In fact, this writing from Jefferson was to a Baptist congregation in Danbury, Connecticut. It was an assurance from Jefferson to them that the congregation would not have to worry about the government encroaching on their religion. Jefferson clearly intended for the state to be limited in its ability to regulate or require religion, not the other way around as is often believed and misquoted today.

Interestingly, even before Congress started to meet in the U.S. Capitol building, Congress approved of the use of the building for church.[12] Jefferson, while serving as vice president, attended the services at the Capitol building, even at the time of his penning of the Danbury letter. The “separation of church and state” quote was plucked out of obscurity by the Supreme Court in 1947 during Engle v. Vitale.[13] At the time, the SCOTUS twisted Jefferson’s “separation” quote to say that the state itself must be completely secular. Later, Lemon v. Kurtzman put more “tests” in place with the intention of making the state provably secular.[14] This gross misuse of Jefferson’s words has resulted in the deterioration of the fabric of American society.

American Presidents throughout the years believed the Bible to be the core of American civilization

Jefferson was not the only founder to make a concentrated effort to keep biblical influence in government. In fact, President John Adams famously said, “Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious People. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.” Additionally, Adams said, “The Bible contains the most profound philosophy, the most perfect morality, and the most refined policy that was ever conceived on the earth…I believe it to be the only system that ever did or will ever preserve a republic in the world.”[15]

President Calvin Coolidge said, “The foundation of our society and our government rests so much on the teachings of the Bible that it would be difficult to support them if faith in these teachings would cease to be practically universal in our country.”[16]

President Theodore Roosevelt said, “A very large number of people tend to forget that the teachings of the Bible are so interwoven and entwined with our whole civic and social life that it would be literally – I do not mean figuratively, I mean literally – impossible for us to figure to ourselves what that life would be if these teachings were removed.”[17]

The impact of one early American pastor is shocking

Sadly, sound Bible teaching has been removed from the fabric of our nation. In our misunderstanding of the “separation of church and state” we’ve begun to unravel the tapestry of what makes America exceptional. We forget that politics from the pulpit is what launched the American experiment. As Presbyterian minister John Witherspoon said, “…this is the first time of my introducing any political subject to the pulpit. At this season, however, it is not only lawful but necessary, and I willingly embrace the opportunity of declaring my opinion without any hesitation, that the cause in which America is not in arms, is the cause of justice, of liberty, and of human nature…In times of difficulty and trial, it is in the man of piety and inward principles that we may expect to find the uncorrupted patriot, the useful citizen, and the invincible soldier. God grant that in America, true religion and civil liberty may be inseparable, and that the unjust attempts to destroy the one may in the end tend to the support and establishing of both.”[18]

We forget that from Witherspoon’s teachings came twelve members of the Continental Congress, five delegates at the Constitutional Convention, twenty-eight senators, forty-nine congressmen, three Supreme Court justices, one secretary of state, cabinet members, a vice president, and one president, who was also the father of the American Constitution.[19] This is the impact the pulpit can have in politics when Biblical Christian pastors take seriously the role of raising up Biblical Christian leaders of American civil government!

The Impact of the Separation of Church and State

Understanding that our founders sought to keep government out of religion rather than keep religion out of government opens a greater understanding of the dire condition we see America in today. Naturally, removing God from government has moved into removing prayer from schools, breaking the standard of the biblical family, and culminating in removing absolute truth as the foundation of morality and law.

Answers in Genesis addresses this issue in a recent article, stating, “Sadly, most Americans (Christians included) have also been duped into believing that the so-called “separation of church and state” requires eliminating the Christian God and creating a neutral situation. But there is no such position as neutrality. Indeed, one is either for Christ or against Him (Matthew 12:30)…. By shrinking back, believers have allowed the secularists to impose their anti-God atheistic religion on the public schools—and the culture as a whole.”[20]

How did we get here?

The cover of McGuffey’s Eclectic First Reader

To understand the evolution of public education has come, one has to know where public education began in America. Interestingly, public schools were first implemented by the Puritans in Massachusetts in 1647 under the Old Deluder Satan Act. The act was passed to ensure children would be able to read Scripture. Aside from the Bible as reader, Noah Webster’s Blue-Backed Speller, then McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers were the most popular grade school textbooks. It is estimated that 122 million copies were sold between 1826 and 1920. With chapters titled “Respect for the Sabbath Rewarded,” “The Bible the Best of Classics,” and “The Hour of Prayer,” it’s clear that American values continued to be mainly Protestant.[21]

In fact, major Protestant denominations tripled in membership between 1860 to 1900. However, the intellectual challenges of the times would begin to impact the worldviews of the people, eroding that which was once biblical. Charles Darwin released On the Origin of the Species in 1859, sparking debate on the infallibility of the Bible, particularly calling into question the book of Genesis. By the end of the century, colleges, which had formerly had evangelical clergy as their presidents which maintained the scientific conformations in the Bible, became universities and now followed a scientific model in which the general subjects became separate disciplines, and consequently, professions were no longer influenced by the Bible. Within a generation, biblical worldview was lost to academia and American thought.[22]

With the adoption of secular scientific belief stemming from the acceptance of evolutionary theory came the questioning of the literal accuracy of all biblical doctrines. This was the rise of self-help and, as Philip Brooks brought to American pulpitry, the admonishment to “believe in yourself.”[23] Indeed, preachers like Brooks, Henry Ward Beecher, and Josiah Strong used the pulpit to move their congregations away from biblical authority. This side-stepping of biblical authority led to deep theological issues across the nation as Protestants awakened to social issues facing urban environments. Progressive suggestions from Christians for reform became a social gospel seeped in liberal progressive politics and nonevangelistic theology. This resulted in the “great reversal” dividing Christians in theological and social issues, thus losing the unity that had bound Americans together for over a century. Protestant pastors kept away from divisive intellectual and theological issues, again side-stepping their duty of providing the biblical answers Americans craved to their tough theological questions. Additionally, those raised in Christian homes which maintained biblical truth found themselves at a crossroads when they reached the universities. No longer rooted in biblical truth, the universities forced students into grappling with the decision of keeping the biblical truth they had been raised with, therefore sacrificing their intellectual respectability socially, abandoning their faith completely, or modifying it drastically to meet the standards of their time. As if this wasn’t enough, between 1865-1917, pastors who did not espouse a biblical worldview occupied one-third of the nation’s pulpits.[24]

How was public education affected by the shift in the worldview of American pastors?

Another force was at work within the public education sphere. John Dewey made his ascension in public education, furthering the erosion of the biblical worldview maintained by generations of American men and women. According to Dan Smithwick, president of the Nehemiah Institute, “Atheist John Dewey, signer of A Humanist Manifesto, was the chief architect of a secular school system with the intent of removing the ‘myth’ of the existence of God and the inerrant Word of God (the Bible) from the classroom.” The adoption of humanism in public school classrooms has left modern Christian teachers in a terrible predicament. According to to Jay Justino in Truth Has Fallen in the Street, “by never taking a stand on doctrine, [Christian] teachers essentially initiate the child into the doctrines of skepticism, pragmatism, and agnosticism, not to mention several other possible ‘isms’, each in of itself a systematic form of doctrine…indoctrination is unavoidable.” Additionally, Justino remarks, “For the sake of honoring God through obedience to Romans 13, we forsake Him by abandoning His Word and His name in public. This is contradictory…. What is troubling is how quickly those who claim to follow God comply with that rejection. They do not stand up and reject the abandonment. Consequently, truth has fallen in the street, in the arena of the discourse of public education.”[25]

E. Daniel Schneider, in Education From the Biblical Worldview states, “It is a big mistake to think of the academic or intellectual realm as having little or no effect on everyday life. This has been a serious shortcoming of the church. For over 150 years, we have abdicated our responsibility to speak truth in the intellectual and academic realm. This is a relatively new trend in the history of Christianity. Historically, Christianity has been the leading influence on intellectual and academic affairs. When Christians fail to speak the truth against errors…we are allowing these lies to advance and affect our culture.”[26]

Biblical Worldview and the American Pastor

Sadly, the attack on the biblical worldview continues inside and outside of the church and education spheres. For clarity, we define “biblical worldview” as “a view of all of life and the world through the lens of Scripture.” A recent Barna study uncovered that:
* 41 % of Senior Pastors hold a biblical worldview
* 28% of Associate Pastors hold a biblical worldview
* 13% of Teaching Pastors hold a biblical worldview
* 12% of Children’s Pastors and Youth Pastors hold a biblical worldview[27]

Interestingly, according to Barna, “Over half of American adults (55%) hold what is known to be a “high” view of scripture, which deems the Bible without error.” Though it appears to be contradictory, these statistics show that despite the decline in biblical worldview, the Word of God is still esteemed in America. This is good news.

In fact, Barna has also found that “even though many people of faith report feeling misunderstood, persecuted, marginalized and extreme in society today, the majority also believes their faith is primarily a positive contribution to society. Large majorities of practicing Christians, and especially Millennials and evangelicals, report two confident attitudes: They feel their faith is a force for good (88%) and that it is essential for society (75%).” This is a remarkable opportunity for pastors and Christian teachers to connect the Bible to not only cultural and political issues, but to everyday life.

Alexis de Tocqueville believed that America was great because of Christianity, and liberty in America would not continue without it.

Are pastors taking this opportunity to educate and empower their congregations to apply God’s Word to modern issues?

Alexis de Tocqueville asserted that there is a “direct influence of religion upon politics” and that the “influence of religion…extends to the intelligence of the people.” Sadly, research also directed by George Barna shows that, “According to congregants, just one out of every five spiritually active Christian conservatives and moderates (22%) said their church has provided a lot of information about what the Bible teaches related to current issues…” despite their desire for it. Additionally, “Just more than half [of pastors] say it is part of their role to help Christians understand their responsibility to vote on specific issues (53%), and only one in five (21%) says it is part of their job to help Christians understand why they should vote for or against specific candidates.” Without direction from the pulpit, Americans find themselves in a culture like that of Israel, plagued with relative truth and deprived of the absolute truth of the Bible.

Romans 15:4 reminds us how Israel rejected God and His ways. It begs the questions, “Are American Pastors rejecting God unknowingly by refusing to stand against anti-God and anti-biblical societal beliefs?” and “Is our nation suffering because of the church’s failure to address moral and societal issues with biblical truth?”

Fear of the Lord

As Jay Justino says, “Facts that are disconnected from the fear of the Lord, and, hence, the morality of God and the application for which he intended these facts, eventually lead away from truth…. It may, therefore, be legitimately asked whether facts themselves, as facts alone, are consistent with the definition of knowledge at all. A fact is a fact regardless of who perceives it. Facts themselves are not personal, yet they exist because of something, literally, “by cause” (i.e., they have origin). Further, they exist for something (i.e., for a purpose). Facts, therefore, reveal a Creator (the something is really someone). As with all created things, creations serve some purpose. Man does not create things for nothing. We should not expect God to do so…. Separation does indeed exist for the sake of maintaining holiness.”

George Barna explains what we see in America today compared to the America at the time of her founding: “A shared consensus of beliefs and values no longer exists. We are moving into a very different culture where people are saying, ‘I don’t want the Bible, I don’t want God, and I don’t want the church.’”

In a recent interview with Jonathan Cahn by Eric Metaxas at Dayspring Christian Academy’s Remember America Speaker Series, Cahn remarked that Christians are to be salt and light. Cahn elaborated with the warning, “If we withdraw, we remove the salt and the light from the world. If we do not fight the enemy in the public square, we will certainly fight him at our door.”

It is a sacred duty to stand for truth. Evangelist Mario Murillo refers to General George Patton, a hero of World War II. Of Patton, Murillo states, “Patton’s fundamental approach to war in the natural is the precise tactic for war that we need now. For example, he didn’t want his men digging foxholes. He was about advancing, moving forward, taking the offensive to the enemy.”

Murillo reminds us that Patton didn’t care about public opinion because, as Patton said, “I’ve got a war to win.”[28]

Continuing, Murillo says, “Imagine if that spirit got on preachers today, if they were not as concerned about public relations as they are about obeying God and preaching sermons that please the Holy Spirit, even when they may offend other people. We can’t be afraid of how different we’re going to look if we obey God in a woke and cancel culture, because His approach and the message to this culture are going to be different,” Murillo said.

Indeed, if pastors and parishioners alike wish to prevent the shackling of religion and the crumbling of American society, the call to defending biblical truth from the pulpit and in the town square must be answered.

It’s time for the Muhlenbergs, the Mayhews, the Whitefields, and the Witherspoons to rise!

Dayspring Christian Academy partners with parents to raise citizens of excellence and character. At Dayspring, students learn to think creatively to become problem-solvers. With a high level of emotional and social intelligence, students can discern truth and meaningfully engage in persuasive discussions, applying Biblical principles to every area of life. To learn more about Dayspring Christian Academy, please call Karol Hasting at 717-285-2000 or register for a personal tour.


Works Cited

[1] Noll, M. A. (1983). The Many Faces of the Church. In Eerdmans’ handbook to Christianity in America. preface, Eerdmans.

[2] Evans, T. (2018). In Kingdom disciples: Heaven’s representatives on Earth, bible study. introduction, LifeWay Press.

[3] deTocqueville, A. (n.d.). Democracy in America. Tocqueville: Book I Chapter 17. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/DETOC/religion/ch1_17.htm

[4] Moede, P. D. (2020, October 1). American minute with Bill Federer: John Peter Muhlenberg: Major-general, congressman, senator … & pastor; and his pastor brother Frederick-the first speaker of the U.S. house. For God’s Glory Alone Ministries. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://www.fggam.org/2020/10/american-minute-with-bill-federer-john-peter-muhlenberg-major-general-congressman-senator-and-his-pastor-brother-frederick-the-first-speaker-of-the-u-s-house/

[5] Noll, M. A. (1983). Full Flowering. In Eerdmans’ handbook to Christianity in America (pp. 106–108). essay, Eerdmans.

[6] Government Corrupted by Vice (1775). Samuel Langdon, government corrupted by vice (1775). (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://www.belcherfoundation.org/government_corrupted.htm

[7] Moore, F., & Duche, J. (2017). The Duty of Standing Fast in Our Liberties. In Patriot preachers of the American Revolution. essay, HANSEBOOKS.

[8] Moore, F., & Mayhew, D. D., J. (2017). Repeal of the Stamp Act. In Patriot preachers of the American Revolution. essay, HANSEBOOKS.

[9] U.S. Department of the Interior. (n.d.). Thomas Jefferson Memorial – Quotations. National Parks Service. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://www.nps.gov/thje/learn/photosmultimedia/quotations.htm#:~:text=%22We%20hold%20these%20truths%20to,governments%20are%20instituted%20among%20men.

[10] Moede, P. D. (2020, October 1). American minute with Bill Federer: John Peter Muhlenberg: Major-general, congressman, senator … & pastor; and his pastor brother Frederick-the first speaker of the U.S. house. For God’s Glory Alone Ministries. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://www.fggam.org/2020/10/american-minute-with-bill-federer-john-peter-muhlenberg-major-general-congressman-senator-and-his-pastor-brother-frederick-the-first-speaker-of-the-u-s-house/

[11] Jefferson, T. (n.d.). Letters between Thomas Jefferson and the Danbury Baptists (1802). Bill of Rights Institute. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://billofrightsinstitute.org/primary-sources/danburybaptists

[12] WallBuilders. (2023, January 9). Church in the U.S. capitol. WallBuilders. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://wallbuilders.com/church-u-s-capitol/

[13] Facts and case summary – Engel v. Vitale. United States Courts. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/educational-activities/facts-and-case-summary-engel-v-vitale

[14] Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971). Justia Law. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/403/602/

[15] Adams, J. (n.d.). Founders online: From John Adams to Massachusetts Militia, 11 October 1798. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3102

[16] Thomas, C., & Coolidge, C. (n.d.). Significant papers. Calvin Coolidge Presidential Foundation iCal. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://coolidgefoundation.org/resources/significant-papers-7/

[17] Roosevelt, T. (n.d.). Theodore Roosevelt Papers Series 1. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://crowd.loc.gov/campaigns/rough-rider-bull-moose-theodore-roosevelt/2-mar-7-sept-15-1901-vice-presidency-and-mckinleys-assassination/mss382990015/mss382990015-513/

[18] Witherspoon, J. (n.d.). 1776: Witherspoon, dominion of providence over the passions of men (sermon). Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://oll.libertyfund.org/page/1776-witherspoon-dominion-of-providence-over-the-passions-of-men-sermon

[19] Morgan, Robert J. (2021). 100 Bible verses that made america: Defining moments that shaped our enduring foundation of… faith. THOMAS NELSON PUB.

[20] Ham, K. (2014, November 7). Separation of Christianity and State. Answers in Genesis. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://answersingenesis.org/culture/america/separation-of-christianity-and-state/

[21] Becker, L. (2021, September 23). Sending Christian children to public schools: What the results show. Dayspring Christian Academy in Lancaster County, PA. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://tjtfep.wangan-sanpo.com/blog/christian-children-in-public-schools/

[22] Noll, M. A. (1983). Full Flowering. In Eerdmans’ handbook to Christianity in America (pp. 283–285). essay, Eerdmans.
[23] Noll, M. A. (1983). Full Flowering. In Eerdmans’ handbook to Christianity in America (p. 291). essay, Eerdmans.
[24] Noll, M. A. (1983). Full Flowering. In Eerdmans’ handbook to Christianity in America (pp. 311–313). essay, Eerdmans.
[25] Justino, J. (n.d.). Christian Teachers in Public Settings. In Truth Has Fallen in the Street: Examining the Pedagogy of Christian Teachers in Public Schools (pp. 74–75). essay.

[26] Schneider, E. D. (2018). In Education From a Biblical Worldview: Philosophy of Education for Professional Educators. essay, The Nehemiah Institute.

[27] American worldview inventory 2020 at a glance CRC survey shows … Arizona Christian University. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://www.arizonachristian.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/CRC-AWVI-2020-Release_01-Worldview-in-America.pdf

[28] Strang, S. (n.d.). In war against ‘woke’ culture, Mario Murillo says we need Pattons to arise. Charisma News. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from http://www.charismanews.com/us/85426-in-war-against-woke-culture-mario-murillo-says-we-need-pattons-to-arise